2021.12.08 00:56 tolstoy-anarchist Loving this new Deangelo backstory on Apple TV. It’s all starting to make sense.
|submitted by tolstoy-anarchist to DunderMifflin [link] [comments]|
2021.12.08 00:56 Salty_God Figured I'd try showing of some art here. These have been drawn over the past half a year, so the quality varies a bit. Feel free to ask questions or roast my art
|submitted by Salty_God to BisexualTeens [link] [comments]|
2021.12.08 00:56 Mughal-Library Why does Pakistani people love Aurangzeb but not Akbar?
| History has become very politicized in South Asia. This can be seen in both Pakistan and India. Instead of viewing historical figures as just what they were, emperors from the bygone age, we tend to to politicize them. This especially applies to Akbar and Aurangzeb.|
This results in many conservative Muslims in South Asia disliking Akbar. They accuse him of being anti-Islam or trying to wipe out Islam from South Asia. Something that he never really did. They downplay his accomplishments, because they disagree with some of his policies. Then we have the other side who wants to do the same to Aurangzeb Alamgir. They let their bias result in a skewed view of the Mughal emperor. He is accused of being incompetent. His religious bigotry is used to declare him as an incompetent emperor.
"Why should I claim to guide men before I myself am guided?” -Akbar
The Third Mughal Emperor Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar
This has created opposing views on Akbar and Aurangzeb in India and Pakistan. For the sake of nation building, history has been infiltrated with propaganda and a skewed take on history. National ideologies have shaped the history and twisted it to suit their own purposes.
India was build on a secular identity. A nation where people of all religions could live together. Including the Hindu-Muslim unity. This has resulted in the portrayal of Akbar as an Indian ruler. One who promoted unity among the Hindus and Muslims. Aurangzeb, on the other hand, is portrayed as a ruler who was far too religious or too much of a Muslim. Rather than a true Indian ruler.
This portrayal is not fair to either of them. I have already written about the politicization of Aurangzeb before. This answer will only focus on the politicization of Akbar and him being ignored or vilified in Pakistan’s history. The Pakistani historian Mubarak Ali has written a great deal on this topic.
Pakistan was build upon the identity of the Two Nation Theory. This was the idea that the Muslims and Hindus are two different people. Two nations that are completely different in terms of religion, history, heritage, morality, culture and civilization. Making the two groups incompatible and incapable of existing truly co-existing alongside each other in a single nation. This theory was the basis of Pakistan’s creation and its existence.
For the purposes of nation building and creation of a historical identity, this Two-Nation Theory has been force-fitted into history within Pakistan. Taught in a skewed manner to ensure that the students can clearly see the existence of these two separate nations in history. History itself being twisted to serve as propaganda for state ideology. Note that Pakistan isn’t exactly unique in this sense. It is common enough for countries (especially developing) to twist history to serve its national identity.
Aurangzeb is commonly portrayed as a orthodox and pious Muslim emperor, who spread Islam throughout the Indian Subcontinent. A great, brave, pious and just emperor. Akbar, on the other hand, is commonly ignored and little is taught about him. What little is mentioned about him is clearly meant to create a negative image of him. Akbar’s tolerant and inclusive (towards non-Muslims) makes him a threat to the state ideology (Two-Nation Theory) and thus a victim of state propaganda.
Akbar is commonly portrayed as an emperor who was against Islam. Or tried to act against Islam. Something that isn’t true at all. Akbar too was a proud Muslim. He considered himself no less a Muslim than Aurangzeb. He simply had a different and unorthodox take on Islam. Remember that this was the same man who took the titles of Padshah-i-Islam (Emperor of Islam) and Amir ul- Mominin (Commander of the Faithful). As well as declaring his capital as the seat of the Caliphate. In doing so, laying claim to the title of Caliph.
One of the biggest points brought up whenever Akbar’s credentials as a Muslim are questioned is the Din-e-Ilahi (Divine Faith) or Tawhid-i-Ilahi (Divine Monotheism). Something that is very controversial and yet very few actually know about.
Some of the history books in Pakistan present the opposition of Ahmad Sirhindi, an Islamic scholar, to Akbar’s Din-e-Ilahi and other tolerant policies as an almost battle between good and evil. Akbar is presented as trying to trying to distort Islam or combine Islam and Hinduism. Ahmad Sirhindi is presented as a great hero trying to save or preserve Islam and re-establish the glory of Islam in India. His victory/Akbar’s inability to gain more followers for Din-e-Ilahi is sometimes portrayed as a victory for Islam. Some authors (M. Ikram Rabbani) go on further to claim this as the origin of the Two-Nation Theory.
Contrary to what is often propagated in Pakistani history, the Din-e-Ilahi was not a new religion. Akbar did not corrupt the teachings of Islam. Nor did he create a new religion. He simply summed up old principles and added a few new ones. Din-e-Ilahi can be considered as a spiritual leadership system. One leaning along lines of a Sufi school (taking a lot from Andalusian Sufi mysticism), where the Mughal Emperor was the spiritual guide/ fatherly figure of the group.
The other charge commonly presented against Akbar is that he tried to somehow corrupt Islam or destroy it. Something that is quite laughable. The Din-e-Ilahi at its peak only had around eighteen followers. Mostly Muslims and a few Hindu. The reason why it never gained many followers is because Akbar never tried to enforce it upon the Muslims. Not by violence or bribes. This was actually a core principle of this spiritual leadership system. One had to join willingly. This is attested to by the Portuguese Jesuits. Had Akbar wanted, he could have used his influence, wealth and military to convert tens of thousands atleast. Yet, he never even attempted to do so.
“If the people wished it, they might adopt his creed and His Majesty declared that religion is conceived to be established by choice and not by violence?” - Father Pierre du Jarric
Akbar holds religious discussions in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Some even go so far as to claim that Akbar left Islam entirely and adopted polytheism. This couldn’t be further from the truth. Akbar was a proud Muslim. Just one with an unorthodox take on religion. Not exactly the first to do so. We have countless other examples. Such as Ibn Arabi, Rumi, al-Tusi and countless others. Remember that even Ahmad Sirhindi was considered unorthodox by many of the orthodox Ulema at the time.
We actually have evidence of Akbar’s professing his belief in Islam. Rumors reached the Uzbek Khagan, Abdullah Khan Uzbek, that Akbar had abandoned the way of Islam and adopted polytheism. He sent an envoy to Akbar to confirm. The Mughal Emperor denied these rumors and claimed them to be “the fabrications and absurd accusations of certain disaffected and expelled persons”.
“Rulers should utilize this quality (insight and wisdom) while managing the affairs of the two worlds and while dealing with persons who misinterpret the word of God communicated by His Prophet (PBUH) in order to gain advantage for themselves." -Akbar’s reply to the Uzbek Khagan
I have even seen some people claim that Aurangzeb himself declared Akbar, his own great-grandfather, a kafir. However, no primary source is ever mentioned for these claims.
“My ancestor Akbar was not most great but a great kafir.” -Claimed statement from Aurangzeb about Akbar
This is extremely doubtful considering that we actually have Aurangzeb’s own words where he shows great admiration for Akbar. He placed Akbar at the same level as Tamerlane himself, the founder of the Gurkani Dynasty. Imagine that. The most conservative Mughal Emperor and one of the most religious emperors in history, respected Akbar more so than almost anyone else.
What makes the authenticity of the above supposed statement even more doubtful is that Aurangzeb would never criticize Akbar. Or any of his other ancestors. In a world where legitimacy was largely decided by genealogy. To question your own ancestor’s legitimacy to rule was to question your own.
“In the region of Hindustan, this scrap of bread [the Mughal Empire] is a generous gift from Their Majesties, Timur and Akbar.” -Aurangzeb to his grandson, Bidar Bakht
The Mughal Emperors seated on both sides with Timur in the center
Akbar is commonly portrayed as a talented and capable emperor, but a ruler who was against or greatly harmed Islam. Though there are other who go much further in trying to distort Akbar’s image. Those who also question his administrative capability and blame him for the collapse of Islamic rule in India in the 18th century.
These type of charges (which question his competency) brought against Akbar are laughable. As they blame Akbar for the collapse of Islamic rule in India that occurred in the 18th-19th century. Despite the fact that Akbar had been dead for centuries. Yet, completely absolve Aurangzeb of any involvement in the decline of the empire and Islamic rule. Despite the fact that it quickly followed his death.
Take Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi’s criticism of Akbar’s policy of inclusion of non-Muslims into the Mughal administration. According to him, this caused the Mughal Empire to cease being an Islamic Empire and this resulted in the weakening of Islam. So much so that Islam could never gain its dominant position in the state.
Qureshi completely seems to ignore the fact that the Mughal Empire was the most stable Islamic Empire in the history of the Indian Subcontinent. Unlike the Delhi Sultanate, Ghurid Empire or Ghaznavid Empire. All of which rapidly collapsed. He also overlooks that the Mughal Empire was responsible for the promotion of Islam probably far more so than any empire that preceded it. Something that was a part of and paid by the Mughal empire (even in Akbar’s reign). Construction of mosques and madrassas. Patronizing Islamic scholars and Sufi saints. Law based on the Islamic legal system.
"Are not five-sixths of all mankind either unbelievers or Hindus ? If I were actuated by motives similar to those which thou ownest, what would remain to me but to destroy them all?” -Akbar
Sheikh Muhammad Rafiq for example claims that inclusion of the Rajputs greatly harmed the Mughal Empire and Muslims in general. According to him, it resulted in them learning “culture” from the “refined” Muslims. The Rajputs used this to gain experience in warfare and learned administration from the Mughals. This turned them into powerful opponents later on. He goes on to further accuse Akbar of threatening the existence of the “Muslim nation” in the Indian Subcontinent.
First of all, the Rajputs didn’t need to learn or gain experience in warfare from the Mughal Empire. This was a nobility class associated with warriorhood since the middle of the medieval era. Centuries before Akbar was even born. Nor was this the first time that an Islamic monarch had brought the Rajputs under their wing for their military capabilities. Rafiq then completely seems to forget that the Rajputs were never the main threat for the Mughals or other Islamic powers during their decline. It was the Maratha Empire. A Hindu group that arose in Aurangzeb’s reign and was never really incorporated into the Mughal Empire. Also helped by Aurangzeb’s war with the Deccan Sultanates.
Similar arguments are made by many other Pakistani historians who follow or promote the state ideology by inserting the idea of the Two-Nation Theory into history. Blaming Akbar for the decision to include the Rajputs and other non-Muslims into the Mughal administration. Conveniently ignoring that Aurangzeb increased the number of non-Muslims within the administration more than ever before.
"Confidence in him (Akbar) as a leader was a matter of time and good counsel and did not require the sword.” -Akbar on why he did not resort to the sword to convert people to Islam
The expansion of the Mughal Empire under Akbar. Compare what he started off with and what he left behind. Akbar laid down the foundations of the empire that allowed it to survive for over a century.
It should be clear by now what I meant about Pakistani history being twisted to serve as propaganda for state ideology. This means that Akbar’s tolerant and inclusive attitude (towards non-Muslims) makes him a threat to the state ideology (Two-Nation Theory). As a result, he is a target and victim of state propaganda.
Now you may note that some of their arguments are extremely weak and quite laughable. Some make no sense at all. Arguments and theories that anyone who has read a few books on the Mughal Empire could easily poke holes into. It makes you question some of their credentials as historians. It seems that instead of looking at history to actually learn or teach. Their purpose is to use or distort facts to create a historical narrative that supports the state ideology and identity (Two-Nation Theory). Regardless of whether what they say makes much sense.
The Mughal Emperors were all just humans in the end. Men with both positives and negatives. Some want to just look at the positives. While others want to just view the negatives and ignore the positives. Instead of trying to create heroes or villains out of history, we should view them as what they were. Men from a bygone age.
Now, there are definitely things that we can actually criticize Akbar for. Both in terms of governance, morality and even religion. But criticizing him for promotion of tolerance towards all religions and sects within the empire shouldn’t really be one of them.
Compare this to the other Islamic Empires of the era. The Ottomans and Uzbeks who responsible for the persecution and massacre of Shia Muslims, whom they considered as heretics. The Safavid Empire which was persecuting and killed many Sunni Muslims, who they viewed as their enemy.
In this same era, you also had the Mughal Empire. An Islamic Empire that not only promoted tolerance and co-existence (relative for the era) among the different sects of Islam. But also with non-Muslims. An empire where a Shia Muslim could reach the highest level of governance or even marry into the imperial family. Something opposed by the Orthodox Ulema. An empire where all different religions were to be allowed to worship their own religion and gods without restrictions. This was the empire built along Akbar’s ideals of Sulh-i-Kul (Universal Peace).
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2021.12.08 00:56 imalegitsnack Saw this and now I wish I got the sweatshirt/shorts outfit 😭
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2021.12.08 00:56 Early-Spirit-8810 NWSL Players that can beat FC Barcelona Women
2021.12.08 00:56 writersmeeting Is this a good deal for a first bass guitar?
I’m looking for recommendations and guitar center has this deal. It’s in my budget ($400) and it will be my first bass to learn on. Let me know what you think.
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2021.12.08 00:56 Curious_Area7552 This stops today. Well, really yesterday.
I'm a 41 year old female. Active. Fiscally responsible. Happily married. Have a great job.
BUT -- my drinking has gotten OUT OF CONTOL the last two years.
I drink 3-4 days a week, and over the last year, I'm starting to see they are benders. I drink one day, wake up and drink more to kill the hangover. I'm sipping booze all day long just to maintain. Then, somewhere around day 3, I settle down and stop. Repeat. Repeat. Repeat. I'm starting to believe that I truly can't just have a few drinks like a normal person.
Most recently, I've been hiding booze in the morning and showing up to virtual meetings quite buzzed. I've committed to stop until I feel like I have it under control, which I realize maybe never. I signed up with a therapist that specialized in substance abuse.
I'm not ready to say I'll be sober forever. That's too overwhelming at this stage, but this is the end of the line for me. It's progressive. And I'm scared.
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2021.12.08 00:56 Commercial-Exam-6541 FUCK MANNY!!!!!!!!
2021.12.08 00:56 Xweetibird Love a successful wash right before you have to sleep
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2021.12.08 00:56 MagsTheNumismatist Toner Tuesday Cent
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2021.12.08 00:56 Ok_Land1253 StaleElementReferenceException: stale element reference: element is not attached to the page document
When I try to run this code i keep getting the same error after the first loop
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from selenium import webdriver from datetime import date, timedelta from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys from selenium.common.exceptions import NoSuchElementException from selenium.common.exceptions import StaleElementReferenceException from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions import time driver = webdriver.Chrome('insert driver here') url = 'https://www.semopx.com/market-data/market-results/' driver.get(url) time.sleep(3) driver.find_element_by_xpath('//*[@id="jscp__acceptAllCookies"]').click() start_date = date(2021, 11, 1) end_date = date(2021, 12, 1) delta = end_date - start_date for i in range(delta.days + 1): my_element_id = 'dynamic-reports-table' ignored_exceptions=(NoSuchElementException,StaleElementReferenceException,) your_element = WebDriverWait(driver, 3 ,ignored_exceptions=ignored_exceptions)\ .until(expected_conditions.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, my_element_id))) date_elem = driver.find_element_by_id('date-selection') day = start_date + timedelta(days=i) print(day) date_elem.send_keys(Keys.CONTROL, 'a') date_elem.send_keys(Keys.BACKSPACE) date_elem.send_keys(str(day)) date_elem.send_keys(Keys.ENTER) driver.find_element_by_id("dynamic-reports-table").click() elements = driver.find_elements_by_class_name("table_EUR") values =  for value in elements: driver.implicitly_wait(3) figure = value.get_attribute("innerHTML") print(figure) if figure == "EUMWh": continue else: values.append(figure) print(values)
2021.12.08 00:56 potatocrappu Need help evolving mons via trade
My pokemon I want to evolve are Gurdurr and Boldore. also Shelmet and Karrablast (you'll need to have the same mons for these two). Thanks in advance 🙏
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2021.12.08 00:56 AutoNewspaperAdmin [Local] - Despite reports of overflowing shelters around the country, most local pets adopted during the pandemic remain with their families | Globe
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2021.12.08 00:56 Murcuz Shiny Shaymin 1526 RAs
|submitted by Murcuz to BDSP [link] [comments]|
2021.12.08 00:56 MrMcFartDust Deep meaning pen drawing art
|submitted by MrMcFartDust to NFTsMarketplace [link] [comments]|
2021.12.08 00:56 kgiff313 Is the app going to be the first of its kind to the market (take picture NFTs and upload directly to market)
2021.12.08 00:56 Marauder_ov_reddit Finding out about MTG changed my life
|submitted by Marauder_ov_reddit to magicthecirclejerking [link] [comments]|
2021.12.08 00:56 Rebby1999 ITAP dog on old chair by a tree line (shot on phone)
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2021.12.08 00:56 littlecrippledboy just want to say how lovely this community is
tuned in to the witnessazir stream and he was really lovely and engaged with chat and answered lots of questions, followed by then a high diamond player agreeing to watch my azir game and give me feedback <3 very wholesome and good community, our emperor would be proud
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2021.12.08 00:56 EstateLow3013 [XB1] H: AAE flamer W: VE flamer
2021.12.08 00:56 invisiblek THE KK WINK
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2021.12.08 00:56 Level_Ad_1864 Noticeable Silver, White Balls.
Any list of silver or white ball players who worked wonders for you? I usually skip on using them but thinking about making silver and white ball squad for campaigns and maybe online mathchdays
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2021.12.08 00:56 GreenDragonite My team going into E4 Any suggestions??
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2021.12.08 00:56 PlenitudeOpulence to do a kick up
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2021.12.08 00:56 Jennasvents If you're partner ignores your messages for 5 hours is something wrong?